Programming by Demonstration (PbD) can allow end-users to teach robots new actions simply by demonstrating them. However, learning generalizable actions requires a large number of demonstrations that is unreasonable to expect from end-users. In this paper, we explore the idea of using crowdsourcing to collect action demonstrations from the crowd. We propose a PbD framework in which the end-user provides an initial seed demonstration, and then the robot searches for scenarios in which the action will not work and requests the crowd to fix the action for these scenarios. We use instance-based learning with a simple yet powerful action representation that allows an intuitive visualization of the action. Crowd workers directly interact with these visualizations to fix them. We demonstrate the utility of our approach with a user study involving local crowd workers (N=31) and analyze the collected data and the impact of alternative design parameters so as to inform a real-world deployment of our system.
I presented this paper at HCOMP 2014.